miércoles, 27 de mayo de 2009

Sobre la visita de Gorbachev a Cuba

El Archivo Nacional de Seguridad acaba de publicar la cuarta parte del diario de Anatoly Chernyaev, el hombre que estuvo detrás de algunas de las transformaciones más cruciales en la política exterior rusa a finales de la década de 1980, debido a su función de principal asesor de política internacional de Mikhail Gorbachev.
Además de su contribución a la perestroika ya un pensamiento más avanzado al imperante entonces en la desaparecida Unión Soviética, Anatoly Sergeevich fue y permanece como un paragón de apertura y transparencia, y en sus diarios y notas ofrece una valiosa información a los historiadores que tratan de comprender el fin de la guerra fría.
La sesión de este diario, que cubre el año 1989, se publica por primera vez en ingles. He aquí lo que dice sobre la visita de Gorbachev a Cuba y las dudas al respecto del mandatario soviético:

Recently he visited Castro, who railed against our perestroika, calling it the betrayal of Marxism-Leninism, of revolution, socialism, “friends;” opportunism and revisionism of the worst kind… He said that Marxism-Leninism has its last sanctuary in Cuba, and that they will follow this path to the end. (I wonder how, if we cut off the 5 billion [rubles] per year in support?)
M.S. raised the question of whether he should go to Cuba (the visit scheduled for immediately after the UN did not take place because of the earthquake in Armenia). I gave a “speech” along the lines of: “The Beard” [Fidel Castro] wasted the revolution and now he is ruining the country, which is spiraling towards a total mess. It’s true that he will not stop in his
demagoguery about orthodox Marxism-Leninism and going “to the end;” since this is the last thing he can use to preserve his “revolutionary halo.” But this halo is already a myth… Nobody reckons with Cuba in South America, it is no longer setting any kind of example. The Cuban factor has waned. A break in relations? But we are not the ones who are causing it. It Castro breaks it, then it will not be like the Chinese scenario. Quite the opposite--he is only going to harm himself. We will only win, and save 5 billion doing it. Are people going to grumble about this? Yes, some will: the dogmatists and dissenters from the “revolutionary camp” and the Communist Parties that are becoming extinct, whose time has passed.
Your visit could delay the break. But it will not change anything, because we cannot give them 10, 20 billion, which is what they want from us. Since we cannot provide, it means that we are revisionists and traitors, in a conspiracy with imperialism.
… In general, in politics it is best not to put something off in hopes that it will figure itself out, when it is clear that this is objectively impossible. This is what happened with Afghanistan: a year and a half ago it was clear that the outcome will be exactly what it is right now. But we waited, wasting billions of rubles, thousands of Afghan lives and hundreds of the lives of our boys. Why?!
At this point M.S. really became angry…
Frolov started to echo him, referring to Metropolitan Pitirim (an acquaintance of his) who “teaches us to be patient.” Quite a joke!
M.S.: “You are wrong, Anatoly. I should go to Cuba. We cannot afford to open another front against us, you see what is happening in Czechoslovakia! And what about Romania, Kim Il-sung, and Honecker!”
I continued to grumble, but he counted the dates and set February 29 for his visit to Cuba.
Para leer la sección complete del diario, pulse aquí.

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